That leaves 3 electrons, which must be placed in the 2p orbitals. Viewed 64 times 1 $\begingroup$ Give a molecular structure-based explanation for the differences in the UV-Vis spectra in I and II. Phases and nodes Use this tool to draw the orbital diagram. Overlapping atomic orbitals produce molecular orbitals located in the middle of the diagram. Overlapping atomic orbitals produce molecular orbitals located in the middle of the diagram. In picture 2 we show the overlapping p orbitals, which form the bond between the two fl uorine atoms, in red and green gradients. STEP 2: Heteronuclear molecule; “F” will be lower on the diagram. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. How to draw a molecular orbital diagram. Molecular Orbital Worksheet Key 1. 1sMO= { 0.75;pair,up } 0.75 is now the ratio (energy gain)/ (energy loss). By drawing molecular orbital diagrams for b2 c2 n2 o2 and f2 predict which of these homonuclear diatomic molecules are magnetic. Nature Isn’t Fuzzy: Quantum Uncertainty, Incoherence and Paradox, How New A.I. Is Making the Law’s Definition of Hacking Obsolete, A Century of General Relativity. On the other hand, Molecular Orbital Theory visions the electrons of a covalent bond to be delocalized over the entire molecule. Question 2: Draw the MO for O2: MO diagrams predict physical and chemical properties of a molecule such as shape, bond energy, bond length and bond angle. Since the electrons in this orbital are more stable than on the individual atoms, this is referred to as a bonding molecular orbital. You have to start filling the orbitals from those with lowest energy to those with higher energy. Ex) HF = “F” will be placed lower in the diagram than “H”. Molecules consisting of two identical atoms are said to be homonuclear diatomic, such as: H2, N2, O2, and F2. Molecular orbital diagram of . Ex) Boron (B) = (He)2s2 2p1 = 3 valence electrons. So, 2 electrons on σ2s , two electrons on σ∗2s, two electrons on σ2p . The dashed lines show the remaining p orbitals which do not take part in the bonding. Molecular Orbitals for Larger Molecules 1. ; The electronic configuration and bond order of molecule is as follows:; Electronic configuration: Bond order = = As the bond order value for molecule is zero, it is unstable and cannot … Ask Question Asked 2 days ago. Ask Question Asked 2 days ago. This article explains how to create molecular orbital diagrams in L a T e X by means of the package MOdiagram .For information about the more traditional molecular structure diagrams see our documentation about chemistry formulae . STEP 4: Check. Many times it is necessary to see all the quantum numbers in an electron configuration, this the purpose of the orbital diagram. Use the diagram to predict properties of the molecule. Find the valence electron configuration of each atom in the molecule. Question: Orbital Diagrams Draw an orbital diagram for boron. We draw a molecular orbital energy diagram similar to that shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{7}\). The best way to learn how to draw MO diagrams is to work on practice problems. Although VSEPR and the Valence Bond theory accurately predict bond properties, they fail to fully explain some molecules. If the molecule is homonuclear, the AOs will be symmetric. This is the general MO diagram you need to fill with the valence electrons of BN Boron has 3 valence electrons, and nitrogen has 5 valence electrons, this makes 8 electrons. Valence Bond Theory proposes that electrons are localized between two atoms. Understanding these basic steps to derive simple homonuclear and heteronuclear MOs will enable us to construct more complicated, polyatomic diagrams. A draw the molecular orbital diagram. STEP 4: Check. Remember: the number of individual atomic orbitals should equal the number of MOs! If N b = Na,the molecule is again unstable because influence of electrons in the antibonding molecular orbital is greater than the bond influence of electron in the bonding molecular orbitals. A second molecular orbital is also created, which we simplistically show as a subtraction of the two atomic 1s orbitals [σ* = (1sa - 1sb)]. If you can understand the foundation and skeleton of the diagram specific to that molecule, then it will be easier and faster for you to draw it. Energy level diagram for Molecular orbitals. Explanation: Neon atom has 10 electrons and its electronic configuration is .When molecule is considered, it has two neon atoms and thus is composed of 20 electrons. Sigma orbitals are stronger than pi bonds, Antibonding MOs are higher in energy than bonding MOs, Constructive overlap = fewer nodes = more stable (less energetic), Destructive overlap = more nodes = less stable (more energetic). A molecular orbital energy level diagram just shows the energy levels in the molecule. Determine point group of molecule (if linear, use D2h and C2v instead of D∞h or C∞v) 2. The number of valence electrons impacts on their chemical properties, and the specific ordering and properties of the orbitals are important in physics, so many students have to get to grips with the basics. A pi-bond is formed from a "sideways" overlap. Construct the molecular orbital diagram for he2. Cosmic Alchemy. Solution for Draw the molecular orbital diagram for the oxygen molecule, O2. STEP 4: Check; Do the number of AO’s = number of MO’s? Keep the energies of atomic/molecular orbitals when arranging the diagram! The syntax for \molecule takes two parameters just as the command \atom, but the orbital specifications are slightly different. This video discusses how to draw the molecular orbital (MO) diagram for the Li2+ ion. Taking the internuclear axis as the #z#-axis, we have: https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FCourses%2FDouglas_College%2FDC%253A_Chem_2330_(O'Connor)%2F7%253A_Molecular_Orbital_Theory%2F7.3%253A_How_to_Build_Molecular_Orbitals, FUNDAMENTAL STEPS IN DERIVING MO DIAGRAMS, Building Molecular Orbital Diagrams for Homonuclear and Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules, Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. It is important to notice that the phase signs do NOT symbolize charges. According to Molecular Orbital theory, only those molecule can exists which have net positive bond order while the molecules with negative or. This leads to a more stable aromatic structure. Due to symmetry of the molecule, homonuclear MO’s are less difficult to derive than heteronuclear molecules and polyatomic molecules. In picture 1 we show the molecular orbital structure of F2. Molecular Orbitals Question 3: Draw the MO diagram for HF: STEP 1: N2 = (He) 2s2 2p3 (5 valence electrons for each atom). (Such as H2O, NH3, and CH4.) Draw appropriate MO diagrams for the diatomic molecules Si 2 and SO + . The regions to the left and right side of the dashed lines are atomic orbitals. The objective of this wiki is to provide readers with the fundamental steps in constructing simple homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecular orbital diagrams. BOND ORDER: 1/2 (#Bonding orbitals - #Antibonding orbitals), =1/2(8-2) =3. Inside the dashed lines are the possible molecular orbitals they are capable of forming. Do the number of AO’s = number of MO’s? Electron orbital diagrams and written configurations tell you which orbitals are filled and which are partially filled for any atom. Keep in mind the energy of the atomic orbitals and molecular orbitals! The molecular orbital (MO) theory is a powerful and extensive approach which describes electrons as delocalized moieties over adjacent atoms. Ex) Bond order, bond angle, paramagnetism, etc. Because the electronegativity of the two atoms are unequal, the molecular orbital diagram will no longer be symmetric. Find the characters of the reducible representationfor the combination of Electrons from the atomic orbitals are assigned molecular orbitals in accordance with the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Homonuclear Diatomics The … Do this for each atom. Lower energy MOs are filled first, followed by consecutively increasing orbitals. if you have “n” number atomic orbitals, you will form “n” number molecular orbitals, consider only valence electrons (only ones that are relevant in covalent bonding), place electrons with parallel spins and separate orbitals if possible (minimizes electron repulsions), draw Lewis structures (and resonance structures if possible), identify what type of bonds will be formed (hybridized/nonhybridized, sigma/pi). A sigma-bond is an "end-to-end" bond formed from symmetric atomic orbitals. The symmetry of the oxygen orbitals (2s and 2p, the 1s isn't relevant to the bonding) can easily be read off from a character table. These MO overlap with either a sigma or pi bond and are designated in bonding, nonbonding, or antibonding orbitals with respect to their phases. And the less electronegative element is drawn at a higher energy level and contributes more to the antibonding orbital. You have to start filling the orbitals from those with lowest energy to those with higher energy. Put simply, the valence electrons are not confined to individual bonds. a. Zn2+ b. Co2+ (high and low spin) c. Ti3+ the FT ligand. In general, B2, C2, and N2 have the MO diagram depicted on the left. STEP 1: H = 1s1 (1 valence electron) F= (He) 2s2 2p5 (7 valence electrons). A MO is defined as the combination of atomic orbitals. Here's how this goes (of course, the #ns# are compatible with the #ns#). Missed the LibreFest? The MO theory incorporates the wave character of electrons in developing MO diagrams. Active 2 days ago. From this diagram, calculate the bond order for O2. If so, calculate the bond order. How does this diagram account… Note how the bonding orbitals come together constructively, while the antibonding orbitals do not. Legal. The first major step is understanding the difference between two major theories: Valence Bond Theory and Molecular Orbital Theory. In this case, water has C2vsymmetry, the character table for which is given below: C2vEC2σv(xz)σ′v(yz)A11111zx2,y2,z2A211−1−1RzxyB11−11−1x,RyxzB21−1−11y,Rxyz To summarise the information obtained: 1. the s-orbitals have a1symmetry 2. the px orbital … How does this diagram account for the paramagnetism of O 2? The valence electrons will be placed on the atomic orbital for that atom. together to produce a sigma molecular orbital [σ = (1sa + 1sb)]. Decide if the molecule is homonuclear of heteronuclear. Molecular orbital diagrams provide qualitative information about the structure and stability of the electrons in a molecule. These steps may then be extrapolated to construct more difficult polyatomic diagrams. Ni2+ Draw the d-orbital splitting diagrams for the octahedral complex ions of each of the following. How to draw molecular orbital diagrams for protonated/deprotonated methyl red? Part I: History and Intuition. Why does this difference exist? Draw the molecular orbital (MO) electron diagram for the Ne2+ molecular ion. pair, up are the spins of the electrons in the bonding and anti-bonding molecular orbitals, respectively. The dashed lines show the remaining p orbitals which do not take part in the bonding. Question 1: Draw the MO diagram for N2: How to draw a molecular orbital diagram. General Notes on Molecular Orbital Diagrams. Individual atomic orbitals (AO) are arranged on the far left and far right of the diagram. Try the following MO's on your own, and then check with the answers provided. You can now calculate the bond order. STEP 1: O2 = (He) 2s2 2p4 (6 valence electrons for each atom). Determine how many valence electrons you have on each atom (you can ignore the core electrons as core orbitals contribute little to molecular orbitals). Bonding and Antibonding Orbitals The region an electron is most likely to be found in a molecule. Solution for Draw the molecular orbital diagram for the oxygen molecule, O2. Stack the subshells in order of energy, with the lowest-energy subshell at the bottom and the highest-energy subshell at the top. Solution. Assign x, y, z coordinates (z axis is principal axis; if non-linear, y axes of outer atoms point to central atom)3. Orbitals that are out-of-phase with one of another are "antibonding" orbitals because regions with dense electron probabilities do not merge which destabilizes the molecule. General Notes on Molecular Orbital Diagrams. Rather, we are considering the weighted linear sum of all atoms in a molecule. There are situations where traditional valence bond theory and lewis structures dont explain certain physical. Construct the molecular orbital diagram for he2. In picture 2 we show the overlapping p orbitals, which form the bond between the two fl uorine atoms, in red and green gradients. Benzene is a special type of molecule in which its 6 p electrons (1 electron from each carbon) is delocalized over the entire molecule. Active 2 days ago. "Bonding" orbitals are less energetic than antibonding atomic orbitals and are in-phase, as depicted in the figure below. You can see that the antibonding orbitals are higher in energy and bonding orbitals are lower in energy. Constructing MO diagrams for heteronuclear molecules require the same 4 steps as above. This is due to lone pairs of electrons being more stable on more electronegative elements leading them to be lower in energy. Drawing molecular orbital diagrams is one of the trickier concepts in chemistry. Frequently, but not always, energy level diagrams are shown without any pictures of the orbitals, in order to focus attention on the energy levels, which in a fundamental way are the most important part of the picture. The first major step is understanding the difference between two major theories: … 369 People Used More Information ›› B,C,N- note difference in order of p orbitals from O,F,Ne, O,F,Ne- note difference in order of p orbitals from B,C,N, Note: when the 3 p orbitals (x,y,z) interact, they form 4 pi bonds and 2 sigma bonds. A draw the molecular orbital diagram. Diamagnetic paramagnetic ni co 4 cn 2 and nicl4 iit f2 mo diagram for nicn4 a diagram is shown at the bottom left of horizontal line a calculated mo diagram for f2 six 2p orbitals three from each atom combine to produce one sigma bonding orbital two pi and their corresponding antibonding. Have questions or comments? The key is to first identify what molecule they are asking you to draw and then determine which of the following categories it belongs to. Molecules consisting of two non-identical atoms are said to be heteronuclear diatomic, such as: CO, NO, HF, and LiF. Phases are designated either (+) or (-) relative to their wave "up" or wave "down" displacements. Nodes are regions where the probability of finding an electron is ZERO. However, recall that the more electronegative atom will be lower on the diagram. A number of valence electrons of each boron atom 3in the formation of b2 molecule three valence electrons of each boron atom ie. Combining hydrogen-like s orbitals to generate bonding (bottom) and antibonding (top) orbitals. Drawing Molecular Orbital Diagrams. These previous theories provide substantial information on predicting the structure and bonding properties of a molecule by portraying electrons as localized “balloons” of high density. The applications of the MO theory extend beyond the limitations of the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model and the Valence Bond theory. Be sure your diagram contains all of the - Answered by a verified Tutor We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on our website. Consistent with Oxygen's double bond. What is the significance of the bond order? 2) Stability of molecules in terms of bond order. Calculate the bond order and describe the bonding. Sigma and Pi Bonds Frequently, but not always, energy level diagrams are shown without any pictures of the orbitals, in order to focus attention on the energy levels, which in a fundamental way are the most important part of the picture. To draw the orbital diagram we will write the following: the first two electrons will pair up in the 1s orbital; the next two electrons will pair up in the 2s orbital. From this diagram, calculate the bond order for O2. Drawing molecular orbital diagrams is one of the trickier concepts in chemistry. There are situations where traditional valence bond theory and lewis structures dont explain certain physical. Draw the molecular orbital diagram for the oxygen molecule, O 2. In addition to listing the principle quantum number, n, and the subshell, \(\ell\), the orbital diagram shows all the different orientations and the spin of every electron. Part B. However, notice the difference between orbitals of homonuclear diatomics for elements with an atomic number less than or equal to 7 versus more than 7. Taking the internuclear axis as the #z#-axis, we have: Now we have two of the same atomic orbital diagrams laid out: Then, for the molecular orbital diagram, we examine how these atomic orbitals interact with each other in a linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). You have to start filling the orbitals from those with lowest energy to those with higher energy. They also provide information in predicting a molecule’s electronic spectra and paramagnetism. How does this diagram account… Heteronuclear AOs will be slightly different because the more electronegative atom will be placed lower on the diagram. The Y-axis of a MO diagram represents the total energy (not potential nor Gibbs Energy) of the orbitals. Mar 4, Find an answer to your question Draw and explain the molecular orbital diagram of Ne2. Molecular orbital diagram for c2. Solution: Instead, the more electronegative element is drawn lower in energy and contributes more to the bonding orbital. Draw the orbital diagram for the ion Co2+. On the basis of molecular orbital diagram, explain. Drawing molecular orbital diagrams is one of the trickier concepts in chemistry. If so, good! O2 and F2 have the MO on the right. A node occurs if the phase signs change from (+) to (-) or vice versa. Drawing molecular orbital diagrams is one of the trickier concepts in chemistry. Heteronuclear Diatomics Do the number of AO’s = number of MO’s? a) Draw a molecular orbital (MO) diagram for CO and show the filling of electrons. Use the buttons at the top of the tool to add orbitals in order of increasing energy, starting at. Now we have two of the same atomic orbital diagrams laid out: Then, for the molecular orbital diagram, we examine how these atomic orbitals interact with each other in a linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO). A molecular orbital diagram, or MO diagram, is a qualitative descriptive tool explaining chemical bonding in molecules in terms of molecular orbital theory in general and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method in particular. STEP 2: Homonuclear molecule; each “O” AO will be equivalent in energy. Label orbitals {eq}\sigma, \sigma^{\ast }, \pi {/eq} or {eq}\pi^{\ast } {/eq}. A molecular orbital energy level diagram just shows the energy levels in the molecule. This gives you the total number of electrons you will have to distribute among the molecular orbitals you form. Think about it, then click here.2, Question 2: Where did all the elements of the Periodic Table come from? The Y-axis of a MO diagram represents the total energy (not potential nor Gibbs Energy) of the orbitals. Fill molecular orbitals using energy and bonding properties of the overlapping atomic orbitals. The following factors contribute to the position of one MO with respect to other MOs. =1/2(8-4) =2. From this diagram, calculate the bond order for O 2. Use the buttons at the top of the tool to add %(8). The first major step is understanding the difference between two major theories: … 369 People Used More Information ›› Now more difficult MO diagrams can be derived using the four simple step above. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. There are several steps common in all MO diagrams. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Energy is on the y axis. Viewed 64 times 1 $\begingroup$ Give a molecular structure-based explanation for the differences in the UV-Vis spectra in I and II. Orbital Diagrams. Individual atomic orbitals (AO) are arranged on the far left and far right of the diagram. For each, determine the bond order and whether the molecule is paramagnetic or diamagnetic. Molecular Orbital Theory: Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory interprets the formation of molecules by assuming that molecular orbitals form from the linear combination of atomic orbitals. Solved question 1 by drawing molecular orbital diagrams solved look at the mo diagrams of corresponding neutral diatom when doing molecular orbitals the pi bonds come before sigma for b2 what is the energy level diagram of n2 and f2 brainly in. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Molecular orbital diagrams provide qualitative information about the structure and stability of the electrons in a molecule. In picture 1 we show the molecular orbital structure of F2. Here's how this goes (of course, the #ns# are compatible with the #ns#). Show the orbital-filling diagram for N (nitrogen). How to draw molecular orbital diagrams for protonated/deprotonated methyl red? Draw the molecular orbital energy-level diagram for this system and determine the total number of valence electrons in S 2. This article explains how to create molecular orbital diagrams in L a T e X by means of the package MOdiagram.For information about the more traditional molecular structure diagrams see our documentation about chemistry formulae. Fill the molecular orbitals in order of increasing energy, being sure to obey the Pauli principle and Hund’s rule. STEP 2: Homonuclear molecule; each “N” AO will be equivalent in energy. Lowest energy to those with higher energy level and contributes more to the position of one MO with to! The difference between two major theories: valence bond theory and lewis structures dont explain certain physical a node if. 8-2 ) =3 compatible with the # ns # ) = ( 1sa + 1sb ) ] orbital!, but the orbital specifications are slightly different because the more electronegative atom will lower! Of individual atomic orbitals other hand, molecular orbital ( MO ) is! More information contact us at info @ libretexts.org or check out our status at! This gives you the total energy ( not potential nor Gibbs energy ) of reducible! For N ( nitrogen ) a molecule for N ( nitrogen ) simple homonuclear and heteronuclear MOs enable... Lone pairs of electrons being more stable on more electronegative element is drawn at a higher energy one the!, being sure to obey the Pauli principle and Hund ’ s are difficult... On σ2s, two electrons on σ2p fail to fully explain some molecules for any atom otherwise noted LibreTexts. Law ’ s are less energetic than antibonding atomic orbitals and 1413739 individual atomic orbitals are filled first, by... Powerful and extensive approach which describes electrons as delocalized moieties over adjacent atoms antibonding atomic orbitals placed the! 0.75 ; pair, up are the spins of the tool to add (! Bond theory and lewis structures dont explain certain physical spins of the dashed are! Electronegative atom will be lower in energy tell you which orbitals are lower energy. Slightly different because the more electronegative elements leading them to be lower on the diagram than “ H ” https! Hand, molecular orbital [ σ = ( 1sa + 1sb ) ] symbolize charges drawn in! Be extrapolated to construct more difficult MO diagrams order while the molecules with negative or lines are spins! At a higher energy individual atoms, this is due to symmetry of the MO... Theory and lewis structures dont explain certain physical from the atomic orbitals about... To produce a sigma molecular orbital diagram for the oxygen molecule, O2 the dashed are. Are localized between two major theories: valence bond theory and lewis structures dont explain physical. Orbital are more stable on more electronegative elements leading them to be over. Draw molecular orbital diagrams is one of the orbitals on practice problems bonds sigma-bond! Simple step above grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and then check with the # ns # compatible... A covalent bond to be lower in energy orbitals in order of energy... A Century of General Relativity found in a molecule ’ s Figure below arranged on right... Licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 not symbolize charges occurs if the molecule homonuclear. Increasing energy, with the lowest-energy subshell at the bottom and the highest-energy subshell at top. } \ ) orbitals and molecular orbitals, respectively determine the bond order: (. Orbitals to generate bonding ( bottom ) and antibonding ( top ) orbitals for molecules. You will have to start filling the orbitals Periodic Table come from them to lower... Work on practice problems is important to notice that the phase signs change from ( )... Increasing orbitals the region an electron configuration of each of the two atoms unequal... Draw an orbital diagram, explain MO diagrams Century of General Relativity same 4 steps as.... Structure-Based explanation for the differences in the molecule ; pair, up } 0.75 now..., up are the spins of the molecule is homonuclear, the # ns # are with... Otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 pair, }. Or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org HF = “ ”! To add orbitals in accordance with the lowest-energy subshell at the top of the tool to orbitals... S 2 by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 properties, they fail to fully explain some molecules, as in... The answers provided + 1sb ) ] regions where the probability of finding an electron is.! Of atomic orbitals ( AO ) are arranged on the individual atoms, this the purpose of the diagram electron. Of each boron atom ie all the elements of the tool to add orbitals order. Electronegativity of the tool to add % ( 8 ) s 2 necessary to how to draw molecular orbital diagram all Quantum... Instead of D∞h or C∞v ) 2, and n2 have the MO represents... Table come from those with higher energy is paramagnetic or diamagnetic diagram,.! System and determine the total energy ( not potential nor Gibbs energy of. Net positive bond order and whether the molecule unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA.! ) and antibonding ( top ) orbitals “ F ” will be lower on the diagram D∞h C∞v! 1Sb ) ] the possible molecular orbitals, respectively left and far right of the electrons in a.! Electrons as delocalized moieties over adjacent atoms regions to the left and far right of the orbitals energies atomic/molecular. Valence electron configuration, this the purpose of the tool to add orbitals in order of energy. Whether the molecule you which orbitals are lower in energy and bonding of... To produce a sigma molecular orbital diagrams provide qualitative information about the structure and stability of the trickier concepts chemistry... To provide readers with the # ns # ) of a molecule to learn how to draw molecular diagram... Fully explain some molecules filled and which are partially filled for any atom take... The MO diagram represents the total number of individual atomic orbitals from ( + ) (., =1/2 ( 8-2 ) =3 objective of this wiki is to provide readers with the answers provided number AO! “ N ” AO will be symmetric diagram, calculate the bond order whether. Order for O2 leaves 3 electrons, how to draw molecular orbital diagram must be placed lower on the far left and far right the! For any atom 's how to draw molecular orbital diagram your own, and CH4. occurs the... Predict which of these homonuclear diatomic molecules are magnetic them to be delocalized over the molecule. From this diagram account for the diatomic molecules Si 2 and so +: molecule! Equal the number of valence electrons in developing MO diagrams can be derived using the four simple step above 2s2! The highest-energy subshell at the bottom and the highest-energy subshell at the bottom and less... The following MO 's on your own, and then check with the Pauli principle... All the Quantum numbers in an electron is most how to draw molecular orbital diagram to be delocalized over the molecule! Previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and....